Fwd: messages from Isak Shteyn

From: Bruce Reisch <bir1_at_nysaes.cornell.edu>
Date: Mon, 2 Dec 2002 12:36:12 -0500
To: czernowitz-l_at_cornell.edu
Reply-To: bir1_at_nysaes.cornell.edu

--- begin forwarded text

Date: Sun, 9 Jun 2002 22:54:39 -0400
To: czernowitz-l_at_cornell.edu
From: Bruce Reisch <bir1_at_nysaes.cornell.edu>
Subject: Czernowitz - message from Isak Shteyn
Reply-To: CZERNOWITZ-L_at_cornell.edu
Sender: owner-CZERNOWITZ-L_at_cornell.edu
Status: RO

From: shteyn_at_juno.com
To: Czernowitz--L_at_cornell.edu
Date: Sun, 9 Jun 2002 04:22:05 -0700
Subject: Czernowitz--historical note

To the Czernowitz e mail group
                                                          I want to fulfill my
promise to the initiator of our group Mr. Bruce Reisch, and here is
something about the City, which gave us its name:
        It's impossible to speak about Czernowitz without to mention Bukowina,
whose capital it is. And Bukowina was in the last quarter of the 18-th
century a little country of mainly beech forests, forlorn somewhere in
the Northern Carpathian Mountains, reaching to the Dnyester and Pruth
rivers, to border on Austria, Moldova and Bessarabia. In 1774, during the
peace treaty of Kutshuk--Kaynardgy, cedes the Ottoman Empire, then the
lord of Moldova, to Austria as a gift the northern part of
Moldova--Bukowina. In this way, became Bukowina a strategic
territory--the Eastern outpost of Austria against Russia, and politically
and economically--a far away part of Central Europe.
        Because the local main populations of Romanians(Moldovans) and
Ukrainians (Ruthenians) are almost equal, 35% to 40%, was Bukowina always
the strife apple between both people and belonged politically to the
temporary mightier neighbour. Until1774--to the Moldova princes, until
1919 to Austria, until1940 to Romania. Since June 1940 until July 1941,
after the notorious Molotoff- Riebentropp pact, the northern part of
Bukowina with Czernowitz as its capital was ceded to the Soviet Union.
 From July 1941 until March 1944 -- under the fascist Romania with
Germany as its main protector. Since March 1944 until 1991 is Northern
Bukowina again under the Soviets. Since 1991 until now--under the
Independent Ukraine.
        The Russians cherish the name of the City Chernovtsy (cherny
ovtzy=black sheep). The Ukrainians--Chernivtsi, what means the same
thing. The Romanians called the City Chernaootsi, we Jews call it, like
the Austrians--Czernowitz.
                Bukowina and the Jews--in a next notice. Isak Shteyn

From: shteyn_at_juno.com
To: Czernowitz-L_at_cornell.edu
Date: Fri, 14 Jun 2002 21:33:23 -0700
Subject: Bukowina and Jews
X-Juno-Line-Breaks: 0,13,26,36
X-Juno-Att: 0
Reply-To: CZERNOWITZ-L_at_cornell.edu
Sender: owner-CZERNOWITZ-L_at_cornell.edu
Status: RO

Dear compatriots,
        There is no any doubt that Jews lived in Bukowina already in the Middle
Ages. A settlement of 1408 between a Moldova prince and the Lvov
commercial guild is the first documentary proof of that. Although under
the ruling of the Moldova prince Alexandru Lopushneanu(1552-1568)the Jews
didn't lick honey here, Sfarady and Ashkenazy Jews settled in that
period. During the Chmielnitzky pogroms in Poland and Ukraine 1648-1649,
a numbre of learned Jews found here their refuge. Already at the
beginning of the 17-th century the Czernowitz Jews rejoiced themselves at
a kind of autonomy. Kahal (the community administration), its leader
the"starosta", and its staff, the Rabbi, elected by the community, had to
be confirmed by the prince. Because of the frequent wars between Russia
and Turkey, the Bukowinian Jews used to leave their homes and to stay
over the difficult times at their relatives in other places.
        The Austrian administration didn't hurry up to improve the situation of
the new acquired Jews in Bukowina. Old and effective antisemitic evil
decrees were poured over the head of the still weak Bukovinian Jewish
settlement. Emperor Joseph 2-d wanted to "normalize"the economic
situation of the new Jews, by returning them to agriculture. But what's
more, the first 20 years they could only lease the earth and become earth
owners only after converting to Christianity. The destiny of the
Bukowinian Jews used to lie in the hands of the temporary head of the
military administration and its relationship to Jews. The general
Enzenberg, a notorious antisemite, wanted to get totally rid of the Jews.
Only an intervention to the emperor refuted the disastrous decree. To get
married it was mandatory to have a permission of the government and a
proof of mastering the German language.
        On 1786 the Bukowina was subjected to Galicia. That made it easier for
Galician Jews to settle in the Bukowina, attracted by lesser taxes and
better livelihood conditions. On 1812, when the neighboring Bessarabia
became a Russian province, the general economical situation of Bukowina
worsened. At this time the whole population of Czernowitz constitutes
just 4516 souls. The economical growth of the City starts only thirty
years later. As a result of the general prosperity of Czernowitz , the
Jewish population is growing as weel and its importance for the City
interests. Especially, after 1867, when the Jews got the same rights as
all Austrian citizens.
        About the blossoming of Jewish Czernowitz in a next note. Isak
Shteyn, Rochester

--- end forwarded text

Received on 2002-12-02 12:41:50

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.2.0 : 2005-05-08 14:27:42 PDT